Monday, November 28, 2011

Global recognition and After-Ernest Percival Rhys

Ernest Percival Rhys (July 17, 1859 – May 25, 1946) was an English writer, best known for his role as founding editor of the Everyman's Library series of affordable classics. He wrote essays, stories, poetry, novels and plays. He was born in London, and brought up in Carmarthen and Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
After working in the coal industry, he was employed doing editorial work on the Camelot Series of 65 reprints and translations from 1886, for five years, while he turned to writing as a profession. He was a founder member in 1890 of the Rhymer's Club in London, and a contributor to The Book of the Rhymers' Club (1893).
In 1906, he persuaded J. M. Dent, the publisher, for whom he was working on The Lyric Poets series, to start out on the ambitious Everyman project, aiming to publish 1000 titles; the idea was to put out ten at a time. The target was eventually reached, ten years after.
Ernest Rhys wrote to Rabindranath on 9 Jan 1914, " A rather sharp wedge has been driven into our close circle, since you left us, but we try to be stoical. Heaven be good to you and yours.
Thomas Sturge Moore (March 4, 1870– July 18, 1944) was an English poet, author and artist. He was born on 4 March 1870 and was educated at Dulwich College, the Croydon Art School and Lambeth Art School] He was a long-term friend and correspondent of W. B. Yeats. He was also a playwright, writing a Medea influenced by Yeats' drama and the Japanese Noh style.
Sturge Moore was a prolific poet and his subjects included, morality, art and the spirit. His first pamphlet, Two Poems, was printed privately in 1893 and his first book of verse, The Vinedresser, was published in 1899. His love for poetry lead him to become an active member of the Poetry Recital Society. His first (of 31) plays to be produced was Aphrodite against Artemis (1906), staged by the Literary Theatre Club of which he became a member in 1908. He received a civil list pension in 1920 in recognition for his contribution to literature and in 1930 he was nominated as one of seven candidates for the position of Poet Laureate. He died on 18 July 1944.
He adopted the name 'Sturge' as a way of avoiding confusion with the poet Thomas Moore.
Almost the same feeling was expressed by Sturge Moore; He wrote, " Your having won the Nobel Prize when hardy had been the official candidate of the Royal Society of Literature ,,,,has made you a certain number of enemies whose ill will is not solely due to the fickleness of their minds."
Of course, the sign of enmity was not visible immediately. But the blow came from the hands of Fox Strangways.  He was on the truck of Tagore's interest up to his going to America.  Rabindranath, too, gave his power of attorney to  him of negotiating with Macmillan and Co. From the moment he got the Nobel Prize, Fox Strangways wanted to relinquish his responsibilities on and from 21 Nov, 1913.
The date of distribution of the prize was published in the local paper Gotebarg Tidning on 11 Dec. The summary of the notification was given in "Uttar Prabasi" on 15 Sept 1985.
The prize awarded to Rabindranath Tagore was handed over to Mr. Clive containing a gold Medal and a Diploma. The English version of which was;
"Awarded to Rabindranath Tagore, because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh, and beautiful verse, by which, with consummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, w    expressed in his own English words, a part of the literature of the West. 
On 29th Jan, 1914, in Governor House of Calcutta a special programme was held to offer the Gold Medal and diploma to Rabindranath by Lord Carmichael. On 12th Dec H.Sederholm wrote to Rabindranath on behalf of Nobel Foundation ;
" The Swedish Academy having decided to confer upon you this year's Nobel Prize for Literature we have the honour to place at your disposal the amount of the said prize Konor 143,010=89. You will please find enclosed an assignment, by the Swedish Academy, on which we beg you kindly to give your receipt in the form indicated.
 We are arranging in such a manner,that this assignment, duly receipted by you, can be exchanged for a check of the same amount at the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China in Calcutta.
Our check of the prize amount is made out in Swedish currency on our Bank at Stockholm, but we are asking our bank to provide payment being effected to you in Rupees, if desired.
Your signature on the receipt should be given at the Bank in the presence of two witnesses known to them and able to certify your identity.
On 24th March it was found in his Cash a cheque of Rs. 1,16,269.00. this amount was deposited in Agricultural Bank, Patisar, at an interest of Rs.7% pa amounting to Rs.48,000.00 and Agricultural Bank, Kaligram at the interest of 7% amounting to Rs. 27,000.00. and an arrangement was made so that this interest might be transferred to Brahmacharyasram at Santiniketan.  The income tax for this prize money was charged at Rs. 2070.50 for the year 1914-1915. From this prize money Rs. 75,000/- was deposited at the Agricultural Bank.
News  was also available to receive cheques from England and America as a donation for the school.
In a special convocation held on 26th Dec at Governor House at 2.30 pm to offer D.Lit to Rabindranath.          

Saturday, November 26, 2011

Andre Paul Guillaume Gide - Gitanjali

André Paul Guillaume Gide (French pronunciation: [ɑ̃dʁe pɔl ɡijom ʒid]) (22 November 1869 – 19 February 1951) was a French author and winner of the Nobel Prize in literature in 1947. Gide's career ranged from its beginnings in the symbolist movement, to the advent of anticolonialism between the two World Wars. Known for his fiction as well as his autobiographical works,
Andre Gide translated some poems of Gitanjali in French (at least 25) which was published in their journal Nouvelle Revue Francaise and subsequently an issue  of 500 copies was published on 26th Nov, 1913 under the title L'Offrande Lyrique. The translation was praised by many. Later on the 2nd edition with an introduction was published on 1914. Gide avoided to add Yeats' introduction.
In the translation in Dutch Von Aden also avoided to add Yeats' introduction in his translated publication.
Though many had praised Yeats' introduction but some did not like it. Robert Brijesh wrote Yeats on 20 April 1913;
" Binyon brought us Tagore's poems with your lovely preface. What a delight it was.! O most blessed one ! there is no one but you who could write so."
The edition of Gitanjali published by India Society Andrews wrote Rothenstein before its proof reading on 6th Oct 1912,
" I don't altogether care for the Introduction. Perhaps willing Yeats will revise it. The sentence I would specially like out is in section II. We would at parting ... the fair Olympia etc.This seems to me throw the reader quite a side trench & completely away from Rabindra." He also wrot to Rabindranath on the same day;
I have written to Mr. Rothemstein about that sentencde in the Introduction I do hope it may be ommitted. I wish this Introduction was more worthy of poems. I read it over again yesterday in tne train & it was altogether not satisfying and very superficial."
Next day he wrote to Rothenstein ;
"I had a letter frrom Fox Strangways by the same post. He is cutting it out tentatively with the option to Yeats realtering if he feels he would wish it."

Friday, November 25, 2011

People's felicitation to Rabindranath at Santiniketan

It was not possible to arrange vehicles for carrying huge passengers from station to the Ashram at Santiniketan at that time and hence some aged persons both ladies and gents went to Santiniketan by car and others on foot. The students of the school was leading them in front and sung the song "Amader Santiniketan.." On both sides of the road, it was decorated nicely with bamboos inserted at regular intervals  which carried mango leaves, garlands, petals of lotus, small conches, shoots of paddy, cupper-coins  hung from threads tied on the bamboos.  
Coming to a close distance of the ashram  the conches were blown repeatedly. The females of the town were blowing the conches standing on the windows of their houses.. A nice gate was constructed in front of the ashram. 
Prasanta Kumar  Pal in his book Rabijibani gave a vivid decription of the programme held at Santiniketan.
Some paper cuttings of Rabijibani by Prasanta Kumar Paul is attached.

Tuesday, November 22, 2011

Rabindranath won the Nobel Prize (contd-2)

The students and teachers at Santiniketan, all became happy and excited. The then student Pramatha nath Bishi wrote, "I observed that the movements of Ajoy Babu as gradually becoming rhythmic like dancing. and Kshitimohan Babu who  was sober in his attitude and restrained in his movement, he also seen to be restless". It was written on the notice board (Ashram Katha) that  the school will remain closed for 4 days because Acharya of our Ashram Rabindranath Tagore  won the Nobel Prize for literature this year (1913)."
The Bolpur Post Office remained busy for some more  days.Telegrams were coming from different parts of the world, within and outside the country, congratulating Rabindranath Tagore . Innumerable letters were also coming. to Rabindranath.  He was in  the habit of answering all the letters by his own hand but the volume of the work was so huge that it was essential to take some mechanical aid in answering the quarries and congratulations.
The letter containing the words, "I am offering my gratitude to those who have expressed their happiness in my honour of being Nobel Laureate this year. thanks , 1st Agrahayan 1320.", written in Rabindranath's own handwriting was cyclostyled and to all well wisher.
Apart from these he himself replied to some persons of importance in his own handwriting.He replied on that day to Ramendrasundar Tribedi;
" A spectre is haunting me and I am searching for a exorcist. I am unable to join in your joy.You may think that this is my exaggeration  but my inner self knows how much heavy is my mind. I have started translating my Gitanjali with the words,
' Kolahal to baran holo/ebar katha kane kane'
      But you see how far the success of prevention it may proceed."
Congratulating Rabindranath, Rothenstein wrote a letter and a telegram . In reply to that Rabindranath replied on 18th Nov.,
" The very first moment I received the message of the great honour conferred on me by the award of the Nobel prize my heart turned towards you with love and gratitude. I felt certain that of all my friends none would be more glad at this news than you. But, all the same, it is a very great trial for me. The perfect whirlwind of public excitement it has given rise to is frightful. It is almost ax bad as  tying a tin can at a dog's tail making it impossible for him to move without creating noise and collecting crowds all along. I am being smothered with telegrams and letters for the lats few days and the people who never  read a line of my works are the loudest in their protestations of joy."
Calcutta University had decided to offer honourable D.Lit to Rabindranath on 28th Nov and that was approved on 15th Nov.
In a special convocation in Governor House, Calcutta, on 26 Dec Rabindranath was awarded D,Lit .
The lovers and followers of Rabindranath had already started a big arrangement for celebrating  the occasion of winning the Nobel prize by Rabindranath. In a special hired train they would go to Santiniketan on 23rd Nov. to congratulate him. This news was circulated in  The Indian Daily News  on 19th Nov asking the willing persons to deposit Rs. 3.25 as a train fair. The news was signed by ; Surendranath Banerjee, Brajendranath Seal, Prafulla Chandra Roy, Satish Chandra Vidyabhushan, W.E.S., Holland, Nilratan Sarkar and Roy Jatindranath Choudhury etc. Another advertisement was published under the signature of A. Rasul, Hirendranath Dutta, Fazlul Haque, and C.F. Andrews.
Under these circumstances a notice was served signed by the Secretary, Bangiya Sahitya Parishad and countersigned by the President Haraprasad Shastri convening  a meeting of the Working Committee of the organisation on 21st Nov. The resolutions adopted in the meeting as recorded in the minute book was;
1. The letter of Ramendra Babu was read and it was decided to send a letter of thanks to the Swedish Academy,
2. Approving the proposal of Ramendra Babu the President send the Telegram to Rabindranath in the following lines;
"Hearty Congratulation on the Triumph of Rabindranath and the recognition of the Bengali literature through him by European nations. A deputation of the Bangiya Sahitya parishad will reach Bolpur on Sunday.
It was also decided after a lot of discussion that the would be team going to Santiniketan to hand over the resolutions would also invite him for a felicitation meeting of the Parishad.
3. President of the Parishad proposed to offer a golden ink-pot and a golden pen to the poet Rabindranath. The details of the programme would be decided afterwards.,
4. the following accepted proposals in this regard were as follows;
i) For whom the Bengal is proud to today, for whose genius the Bengali literature is glorified today, for whose creation the Bengali literature has got a seat in world's literature , for whose honour India is flooded with joy, as a mouthpiece of Bengali literature, the Bangiya Sahitya Parishad is joining the chorous of joy in the whole of Bengal,
ii) The Swedish Academy, after thorough reading of the creation of Dr. Rabindranath Tagore has conferred the best honour Nobel Prize to an important member of the Parishad and became thankful to the members of the Parishad,
iii)The Parishad would arrange for celebrating the felicitation of  the eternal friend of the Parishad Dr. Rabindranath Tagore in a befitting manner,
iv) The following persons be selected for inviting Dr.Rabindranath Tagore in Bolpur for this felicitation at Calcutta,
Haraprasad Shastri,Ashutosh Choudhury, Saradacharan Mitra, Roy Jatindranath Choudhury, Satish Chandra Vidyabhushan, Hirendranath Dutta, Ramendrasundar Tribedi, Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay, Panchkari Bandyopadhyay, Saileshchandra Majumdar, Manmohan basu, Kaviraj Durganarayan Sensashtri, and Byomkesh Mustaffi.
For arranging this  deputation, the monthly meeting of the Parishad was suspended.
Having  known the news of this deputation, Santiniketan was getting herself prepared for welcoming the guests  properly with fireworks and sweets.
The felicitation of the people coming from Calcutta in a hired reserved train was recorded in several documents written by different persons. 1. Punyasmriti by Sita Devi, 2. Bolpur-e Rabindrasambardhana by Fakir Chandra Chattopadhyay, 3. Santiniketan-e Ekdin by Krishnabehari Gupta, and in other books.. Apart from this Pulin Behari Sen in his book published in the issue of Rabindrajanma Satabarsha - 1368, wrote in details of the description of this felicitation.
The special train carrying the important persons from Calcutta started on 23rd Nov. at 10.55 AM for Bolpur.The train was decorated with flags and a band party also accompanied them. At about 3 PM the train reached Bolpur carrying 500 persons ( males and females) and they were welcomed by Andrews putting Dhoti and Chadar and students with Saffron coloured dress. The paper of ovation written by the poet Satyendranath Dutta which had been discovered recently.      

Saturday, November 19, 2011

Rabindranath won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913 (contd-1)

The address of Rabindranath Tagore was not known to the authority of Swedish Academy and ,therefore, they informed Tagore the news officially from London through Macmillan on 14th Nov in the following lines;
CALCUTTA/15 NO 13/GPO on receiving the above  telegram,  the son-in-law Nagendra informed the news to Rabindranath at Santiniketan by wire on 16 Nov,  in the morning 7-10 AM ;
"Following cable received midnight Swedish academy awarded you Nobel prize for literature please wire acceptation swidish minister = nagen=
The news was first published in the evening-paper Empire ;
The Nobel Prize for literature has/been conferred on the Indian poet, Rabindranath Tagore.
The paper also described the "History of the Nobel Prizes" and endorsed the names of winners from 1901 to 1913 i.e., the 14 names, winners of Nobel Prize for literature.
Having the above news in the paper, the lovers of Tagore sent separately enumerable telegrams to Bolpur, the first of which was ;
Handed in at Calcutta 14 16 10 Recd. here at 16.43 
Rabindranath Tagore/Santimniketan/Bolpu
Nobel prize conferred on you our congratulations
= manilal satyendra charu
i.e., Manilal Gangopadhyaya, Satyendranath Dutta, and Charuchandra Bandyopadhyay sent the telegram at 4.10 PM from Calcutta which reached Bolpur Post Office at 4.43 PM.
On 26th may, 1921, Rabindranath himself said in his Nobel-lecture delivered at Stockholm of Sweden;
" I remember the afternoon when I received the cablegram from my publisher in England that the prize had been awarded to me. I was staying then at the school of Santiniketan, about which I suppose you know. At that moment we were taking a party over to a forest nearby the school, and when I was passing by the telegram office, a man came running to us and held up the telegraphic message. I had also an English visitor with me in the same carriage. I did not think that the message was of any importance, I just put it into my pocket, thinking that I would read it, when I reached my destination. But my visitor supposed he knew the contents, and he urged me to read it, saying that it contained an important message. And I opened and read the message, which I could hardly believe. I first thought that possibly the telegraphic language was not quite correct and that it might misread the meaning of it. And you can well understand how rejoicing it was for my boys at the school and for the teachers."
The biographer of Rabindranath was present at the school at Santiniketan; he wrote;
" After the reopening of the school on 15th Nov. the poet, Rathindranath and Dinendranath were going for a outing by a motor car through the Saal forest of Chaupahari, they received the telegram enroute their journey which read as "Rabindranath received the nobel prize on literature for 1913 for literature. The telegram was sent by Satyendranath Dutta. The news was brought by Nagendranath and it was annonced at the time of lunch in the kitchen."
Thomson wrote in his description that about 4.30 PM I had my tea . He (Rabi)came in suddenly and said "Mr. Thomson, will you excuse me for a few hours? I have to go somewhere."

Friday, November 18, 2011

Rabindranath won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913

It was only for the struggle of two persons the genius of Tagore was recognized by the Nobel Committee for Literature.
Heidenstam's letter and  the report of Per Hallstrom influenced the members of the Nobel Committee for Literature. Gunnar Ahlstrom wrote;
"More and more of the Academicians began to read Gitanjaliand gradually succumbed to the charm of these rhythmic ideas. Then the unexpected happened. The Committee's recommendatiom in behalf of Emile Faguet was rejected by a by a decision of the Academy in pleno. Of the 13 who voted on November 13, 12 were in favour of Rabindranath Tagore."
The news was published  from Stockholm, Thursday, Nov 13 on that very day.: The Nobel Prize for literature for 1913 ha s been awarded to the Indian Poet Rabindranath Tagore. Reuter's Services from London circulated it through out the World. They also announced the prize money of 8000 Pound and a list of winners winners from 1901 to 1912.
Rabindranath was almost unknown to the world. the reporters of different paters from world began to collect informations about Rabindranath Tagore.Some papers of England and some papers of Chicago were lucky to know earlier some about Rabindranath still some of their datas circulated were not correct.
Evening Post, New York, Nov 13, wrote that ' the first time on record that the prize has been given to anybody but a white person.'
Times of Los Angels wrote on 15 Nov, under the title " The ignoble Decision/Hindu Poet Unworthy of Nobel Prize' said;
"The Nobel prize for Literature has been awarded to a Hindu poet whose name few people can pronounce , with whose work fewer in America are familiar, and whose claim for that high distinctionstill fewer will recognize."
Some papers even grambled for giving the prize to an unknown leaving behind some important poets like Tomas hardy, Anatole france etc.    

Thursday, November 17, 2011

More on Recommendation of Nobel Prize of Rabindranath (contd-1)

After writing the third phase of his recommendation, Per Hallstrom  approached the Nobel Library of Stock Home for further information about Rabindranath Tagore. Being requested  The Times Book Club of 376 to 384, Oxford Street of  West London ,  contacted with the publisher Macmillan of Rabindranath. Afterwards the Secretary of the Times Book Club, G.F.James wrote to Strangways on 20th May, 1913,
" We have been referred to you by Messrs. Macmillan in connection with an enquiry we have received for a list of books in the Bengali language by Rabindranath Tagore, also for any articles  which have appeared either dealing with this author or his work. If you could assist us in answering the enquiry we should be very greatly obliged. I may add that the enquiry comes from the Nobel Library at Stockholm, and that the fullest possible information is likely to be of use to Mr. Rabindranath Tagore in that quarter."
Having received this letter Fox Strangways sent the paper cuttings containing the criticism about Rabindranath published in the papers The Times, The Fortnightly Review, The Nineteenth Century etc.Per Hallstrom wrote his second part of recommendation on Gitanjali..
   Harald Gabriel Hjärne (Klastorp, Skövde 2 May 1848 – Uppsala 6 January 1922) was a Swedish historian.Hjärne held one of the chairs of history at Uppsala University from 1889 until 1913, and was a member of the Swedish Academy from 1903. He was a member of the Second Chamber of the Riksdag 1902-1908 and of its First Chamber 1912-1918.
But the Nobel Committee under the chairmanship of Harald Hjarne did not approve the name of Rabindranath Tagore for the Nobel prize.
Gunnar Ahlstrom informed that in total 28 recommendations were submitted for Nobel Prize for Literature this year.
The following are the names of the candidates with their recommendations against each of them as the contestants for the prize;
1. Thoma Hardy (1840-1928) - Recommended by 97 members of the Royal Society of Literature of England,
2.  Benito Perez Galdos (1843-1920) - Recommended by 700 persons from Spain.
3. Carl Spitteler (1845-1922) - from Switzerland,
4. Grazia Deledda (1875 - 1936) - from Italy, 5. Earnest Lavisse (1842 - 1924) - from France, 6. Pierre Loti (1850 - 1923)  and 7. Antole France (1844 - 1924) - from Germany. Apart from these there were names from Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Belgium, etc.
High recommendations by Per Hallstrom about Rabindranath was not able to mould the mind of Hjarne.
Later on Anders Osterling (1884 - 1981), permanent Secretary of Swidish Academy and a member of Nobel Committee wrote'
" It is true that Harald Hjarne , the then Chairman of the Committee, was unwilling to commit himself and expressed the opinion that it must be difficult to decide how much in Tagore's enchanting poetry was his own personal creation and how much must be attributed to the classical traditions of Indian literature. Therefore the Committee gave serious consideration in the first place to another author who had been proposed, Emile Faguet (1847-1916), the French literary historian and moralist."
There was a member in the Swedish Academy who knew Bengali, he was an old man and an orientalist, Esaias Henrik Vilhelm Tegner (1843 - 1928),  the grandson of the famous poet of Sweden -  Esaias Tegner (1782 - 1846).    He, too, could not convince the other members of the Nobel Committee.
When the Swedish Academy comprising of Professors, Bishops, Government Officials, writers etc placed its decision, the  contemporary and most famous poet of Sweden, Carl Gustaf Verner von Heidenstam (1859 - 1940), a nominated member ( just nominated on 26.9.1912 and got Nobel prize for Literature on 1916, there was no award on 1914 and 1915 due to war) of Swedish Academy came forward in support of Rabindranath Tagore. He was moved by reading Gitanjali translated by Anrea Butenschon in Swedish.     

Wednesday, November 16, 2011

More on Recommendation of Nobel Prize of Rabindranath

On 28th Oct. Vice-Chancillor Ashutosh Mukhopadhyay proposed in a meeting of the Syndicate of Calcutta University proposed to offer honourable Doctor of Literature to Rabindranath along with other six persons. Syndicate decided to send the proposal to Senate for its sanction.In about 15 days time Swidish Academy published the name of Rabindranath as a winner of Nobel prize in Literature for 1913. The propsal of Ashutosh Mukhopadhyay to offer Honourable D. Lit to Rabindranath saved the Calcutta University from shame. It is to be mentioned  here that just before one year "Pathsanchoy" written by Rabindranath was refused to be selected by the Textbook-Selection-Committee of Calcutta University.
Thomas Sturge Moore, as a member of Royal Society of Literature of Great Britain, recommended the names of Rabindranath to the Swidish Academy for Nobel Prize. There was no mention about the identity of Rabindranath or anything about the his creation in the letter of recommendation. But it attracted  the members of the Swidish Academy for its novel style of recommendation.Sturge Moore was not at all unknown to The Academy Gunnar Ahlstrom in his essay " The 1913 Prize'wrote;
"In 1911 Sturge Moore was elected to an important post in the Royal Society of Literature, whose concern it had been since 1912, to watch over the interests of  England with regard to the Nobel Prize."
Per halltrom (1866-1960) , a member of Nobel Committee and an Academician, had been given the charge of judging the merit of the proposal and the last date of submitting his report was 29 Oct. 1913.
   Per Hallström and his wife.Per Hallström (1866, Stockholm – 1960) was a Swedish author, short-story writer, dramatist, poet and member of the Swedish Academy. He joined the academy in 1908, and served as its Permanent Secretary from 1931 to 1941. Before devoting himself to writing, Hallström worked in London and Chicago as a chemist. He is appreciated primarily for his collections of short stories, such as Purpur [Purple] (1895) and Thanatos [Death] (1900). His major works, written before 1910, combine profound compassion with a sensitive awareness of beauty.[citation needed] Between 1922 and 1946, Hallström served as Chairman of the Nobel Committee of the Swedish Academy for the Nobel Prize in Literature.

   The translated form of the report of the recommendation of Hallstrom was published in Indian Literaure  (Vol. 4. 1961) in the essay "Tagore and Nobel Prize" written by Arvid hallden. It revealed that Hallstrom had taken much time to prepare the report -- it was written in three stages. In the first stage he wrote about Gitanjali, in which he said ;
" The small collection of poems... creates such a surprisingly rich and genuinely poetic impression that there is nothing odd or absurd in the proposal to reward it even with such a distinction as it is a question here." and here he found, " something more remarkable than anything that European poetry has to offer at present.". He expressed his decision, " There is no mistaking the exceptional poetic beauty. The mode of expression is of classical simplicity, the image is only the spontaneous language of thought, and it does not need to be moulded into shape, it is even complete through the mere mention of the word."
Before writing about the next phase of his recommendation he found the criticisms of Ezra Pound in The Times, (7th Nov 1912) & The Fortnightly Review (Mar 1913), of Arnest Ridge in The Nineteenth  Century (April 1913).  He got in these criticisms which he incorporated in his second phase of recommendation in the line of its outward structure. The third phase of his recommendation he wrote after getting  " The Gardener".Hallstrom did not find any shortage of beauty in these poems of love. Quoting several poems he wrote in his decision;
" It is certain, however, that no poet in Europe since the death of Goethe in 1832 can rival Tagore in noble humanity, in unaffected greatness, in classical tranquility."            

Tuesday, November 15, 2011

Rabindranath's descendants

Rabindranath Tagore’s Descendants
During the course of our two most recent conference calls, we had some discussions, among various other issues, about Rabindranath’s children and his grandchildren. I have gathered some basic information on this topic, and for everyone’s ease of reference I furnish my findings below. Please note that this is by no means a scholarly article on the subject, but rather a compilation of some straight forward facts.
Rabindranath Tagore’s Birth and His Death
Rabindranath Tagore was born in Calcutta (Kolkata) in the ancestral home of the Tagores at 6 Dwarkanath Tagore Lane, Jorasanko on Tuesday, 7 May 1861 between 2.30 and 3.00 a.m.; corresponding to Monday, 25 Boishaakh 1268 Bengali Era.
 At the end of his life,Tagore was brought to Kolkata from Santiniketan for Medical treatment on 25 July 1941, and he remained in Kolkata for the last two weeks of his life. He dictated his last poem on 30 July 1941, and died at the age of 80 Years 3 Months in the family house at Jorasanko in Kolkata on Thursday, 7 August 1941, shortly after 12.00 noon; corresponding to Thursday, 22 Sraabon 1348 Bengali Era.
Rabindranath Tagore’s Wedding and His Wife’s Subsequent Death
Rabindranath was married at the age of 22 years 7 months, and his wife Bhabatarini Debi was about ten years of age at the time of their wedding; which took place in the ancestral house of the Tagore family at Jorasanko (not in the bride’s home) on 9 December 1883. Rabindranath’s father, his second brother Satyendranath Tagore and eldest sister Saudamini Debi were not present at the wedding. Saudamini Debi's husband Saradaprasad Gangopadhyay died on Rabindranath's wedding day.
Bhabatarini Debi was born in the year 1873 at Fultala, a village in the district of Jessore, in East Bengal (present day Bangladesh). Her father, Benimadhab Raychaudhuri, was a minor employee on the Tagore Estates. The name Bhabatarini was considered an old fashioned one by the members of the Tagore family, and consequently, her name was changed to Mrinalini Debi, which was suggested by Rabindranath’s eldest brother Dwijendranath Tagore (1840 – 1926).
Mrinalini Debi fell ill in the year 1902 while she was residing at Santiniketan. She was later brought to Calcutta for medical treatment but, the doctors could not diagnose her illness. Rathindranath Tagore later speculated that his mother had appendicitis. She remained unwell for three months, and eventually died on 23 November 1902 at the age of about 29 Years. Rabindranath was 41 years 6 months of age when his wife Mrinalini Debi died. After his wife's demise, Rabindranath never remarried.
Rabindranath Tagore’s Children
Rabindranath Tagore and Mrinalini Debi had five children - three daughters and two sons - and they were: Madhurilata Debi (Bela), Rathindranath Tagore (Rathi), Renuka Debi (Rani), Mira Debi (Atasi) and Samindranath Tagore (Sami). Three of Rabindranath's children died by the time he was 57 years old but, he did not adopt any other children.
Madhurilata Debi (Bela)
Rabindranath’s first child Madhurilata, who was his eldest daughter, was born on 25 October 1886. She was also known as Bela. Rabindranath sometimes mentioned her name as ‘Beli’ in his letters to his family members.
Madhurilata was married at the age of fifteen to Saratchandra Chakraborty (the third son of the poet Biharilal Chakraborty) in July(?), 1901. Madhurilata’s husband was a lawyer.
Madhurilata died of tuberculosis at her husband’s house in Calcutta on 16 May 1918 at the age of 31 years 6 months. She did not have any children.
Rathindranath Tagore (Rathi)
Rabindranath’s second child Rathindranath Tagore, who was his eldest son, was born on 27 November 1888. Rathindranath was married on 27 January 1910 to Pratima Debi. Pratima Debi was born in the year 1893. At the time of their marriage, Rathindranath was 21 years 2 months of age and Pratima Debi was about 17 years of age.
Pratima Debi was Gaganendranath and Abanindranath Tagore’s niece. (Her mother Binayini Debi was their sister). Before her marriage to Rathindranath, Pratima Debi had been married to Nilanath Mukhopadhyay but, was widowed within a year.. Rathindranath and Pratima Debi’s marriage was the first instance of a widow marriage in the Tagore family.
Rathindranath and Pratima Debi did not have any children. However, they adopted a daughter called Nandini, who was born in the year 1922. Sometime after Tagore’s death, Rathindranath and Pratima debi separated.
Rathindranath became  the Vice Chancellor of Visva-Bharati University from 14 May 1951 till 22 August 1953. He died in Dehradun on 3 June 1961 at the age of 72 years 6 months. Pratima Debi died in the year 1969 when she was about 76 years old.
Renuka Debi (Rani)
Rabindranath’s third child Renuka, who was his second daughter, was born on 23 January 1891. She was also known as Rani. She was married to Satyendranath Bhattacharya in August(?) 1901, about one and a half months after her elder sister Madhurilata got married. At the time of her wedding, Renuka was about 10 years 6 months of age. She died of tuberculosis in mid-September 1903 when she was about 12 years 7 months of age. Renuka did not have any children.
Mira Debi (Atasi)
Rabindranath’s fourth child Mira Debi, who was his fourth child and third and youngest daughter, was born on 12 January 1894. She was also called Atasi. Mira Debi was married on 6 June 1907 at the age of 13 years 4 months to Nagendranath Gangopadhyay .She died in Santiniketan in the year 1969 at the age of about 75.
Mira Debi and Nagendranath had two children – a son named Nitindranath (Nitu) and a daughter named Nandita (Buri).
Samindranath Tagore (Sami)
Rabindranath’s fifth child Samindranath, who was his second and youngest son, was born on12 December 1896. He was also called Sami. Less than six months after Mira Debi’s wedding, while Samindranath was visiting a friend at Munger in the state of Bihar, he suddenly died of cholera on 23 November 1907, the day his mother Mrinalini Debi died five years before. At the time of his death, Samindranath was 10 years 11 months of age.
Rabindranath Tagore’s grandchildren
Rabindranath had three grandchildren – one grandson and two granddaughters – and they were Nitindranath, Nandita and Nandini.
Nitindranath Tagore (Gangopadhyay) [Nitu]
Mira Debi’s only son, and Rabindranath’s only grandson, Nitindranath was born in the year 1912. He was also called Nitu. While he had been residing in Germany for higher studies, he died of tuberculosis on 7 August 1932 at the age of 20. Nitindranath was not married. At the time of Nitindra’s death Rabindranath was 71 years of age.
Nandita Kripalani (Buri)                                                              
Mira Debi’s only daughter Nandita was born in 1916. She was also known as Buri. She was married to Krishna Kripalani (1907 – 1992). They did not have any children. Nandita died in 1967 at the age of 51.      
Rathindranath and Pratima Debi’s adopted daughter Nandini was born in 1922. She was married on 30 January 1939. (I do not have any more information about her).
From the information presented above we see that only two of Rabindranath Tagore’s children – his son Rathindranath and daughter Mira Debi – and two of his granddaughters, Nandita (Mira Debi’s daughter) and Nandini (Rathindranath’s adopted daughter), outlived him, and it is sad to note that no direct descendant of Rabindranath is alive any more.
1. If anyone has any more information about Rathindranath’s adopted daughter Nandini, for example, to whom did she get married, whether she is still alive, if not then when did she die, did she have any children, and what were their names etc.; then please enlighten us all.
2. If anyone notices any factual errors in this article, please provide the correct information, mentioning the sources. Please do not ignore any mistakes.
3. I could not find the exact dates of some of the events, and in such cases I have indicated only the years when those incidents happened. If anyone knows the exact dates, please share those information with everyone.
The Visva-Bharati Quarterly Vol. VII, Parts I & II, May – Oct. 1941 – Tagore Birthday Number Edited by K. R. Kripalani
Rabindranath Tagore : A Centenary Volume 1861 – 1961 Published by Sahitya Akademi
On the Edges of Time by Rathindranath Tagore
I Won’t Let You Go : Selected Poems of Rabindranath Tagore Translated by Ketaki Kushari Dyson
Rabindranath Tagore : Selected Short Stories Translated with an Introduction by William Radice
Atmaghati Rabindranath Vol. II by Nirad Chandra Chaudhuri

Rabindranath welcome at Calcutta. Jorasanko,Santiniketan

Tagore’s third trip to Europe in 1912 was a landmark in his career. Recuperating in England, the ailing Rabindranath came in contact with the leading literary personalities of England including William Rothenstein, W.B. Yeats, Ezra Pound, C.F. Andrews, Ernest Rhys and Bertrand Russell (1872-1970). His translation of Gitanjali was received with great enthusiasm as Tagore left for  USA. He visited Illinois, Chicago, Boston and New York and delivered several lectures at Harvard. On his return to England, his play The Post Office was staged by the Abbey Theatre Company. Tagore’s growing popularity as a poet can be gauged from Rothenstein’s letter to him, “When you last came, it was as a stranger, with only our unworthy selves to offer our friendship; now you come widely recognized poet and seer, with friends known and unknown in a hundred homes.” Tagore left for India in September, 1913.
On 27th Sept he reached Bombay by "City of Lahore" ship. From the same port he started on 27th May, 1912 and just after one year four months he again came back to his own country. He received warm welcome by a huge gathering. He wrote Edward Thomson;
"When I reached Bombay, I saw a lot of people with garlands. I thought they were waiting to garland some official. My heart sank when I found they were waiting to make a public show of me there." Not only the visitors, the reporters of different papers were waiting. While answering the questions of the representatives of Associated Press and in response to the warm welcome he received from the litterateurs of England.  he expressed his feeling  by saying ;
"I met most delightful literary people who were all very kind and most appreciative. As soon as embarked  on our return voyage we were at once made to feel that our fellow passengers were quite different from the class we were associated with in England."
  At Calcutta
On 29th Sept, 1913, Rabindranath and others reached Howrah Station in the morning.he was welcomed by a huge gathering waiting at the platform.;
' On the morning of Monday the 29th September Babu Rabindranath Tagore reached Howrah Station and was accorded a warm welcome by a large number of his countrymen. As the train neared the platform cries of "Bande-Mataram" were raised, and there was an eager rush towards the compartment in which he was.When Rabindranath alighted he was garlanded successively by Principal Brajendra nath Seal, Principal Mahamahopadhyay Satish Chandra Vidyabhushan of the Sanskrit College and the Maharaja Bahadur of Susang;  and bouquets of lotuses and roses were presented to him by Babu Krishna Kumar Mitra , Harendranath Dutta, Nagendra Nath Basu Prachyaviduamuharnav, and others."
Kalidas Nag (1891-1966) was also present at the station. He wrote in his diary ;
"Aaj Prachya Kabindra Rabindranath returned back to his country with crown of fame of the west on his head. "
At Jorasanko
Huge arrangements were made at Jorasanko to welcome Rabindranath.
The nephew Satya Prasad thought that his maternal uncle would go to Calcutta via Allahabad. He also made arrangements to welcome Rabindranath. Rabindranath consoled him in a letter written later on.
At Santiniketan
The students and teachers of Brahmacharyashram staged the drama "Balmiki Prativa"  on 30th Sept. to  welcome Rabindranath.

Sunday, November 13, 2011

Rathindranath and Rabindranath back to India

Describing all the peculiar plans of his father,  Rathindranath wrote to Mrs Seymour on 30th Aug,1913;
"For the last few weeks we have been roving through the slopes of Siberia, over the mountains of Switzerland, into the Deserts of Arabia, ...We are on the 3rd Sept from Liverpool on the "City of Lahore".  Protima and myself should like to go through the continent and go on board from Naples , but we have not divulged our plans to father yet." he again wrote with other informations, " We are going to see the first night of one of Shaw's new plays -- "Androcles and the Lion' this evening."
Rathindranath and Protima Devi had been out according to their plan for Europe tour; After travelling Paris, Lusarn, Rome etc they got the "City of Lahore" ship on 11 Sept. from Naples.
Rothenstein wrote in his autobiography that he and the poet Yeats arranged a dinner in his honour on the last night, 2nd Sept of his departure . This information was published in a paper, namely "The Inquirer"
" Although a small gathering of English friends met to bid him farewell on the night before he left London."
Rothenstein mentioned a funny tale remembering this incident which was as follows;
After the dinner Rabindranth was requested to sing his National Song .Rabindranath started to sing the national song "Bandemataram", but after singing two lines , he stopped as because his memory failed. Yeats started to sing his Irish national song and he also stopped after singing two lines because he could not remember further, then Arnest Ridge started to sing his national song of Wales, and that was the first time in his life that he forgot to sing more than a line. Rothenstein too wanted to sing "God save the King.." and faced the same problem.
The Manchestor Gaurdian during day time published the news of the departure of Rabindranath Tagore on 3rd Sept,1913.
Rabindranath reached Bombay station on 27th Sept when he had answer several questions put by the reporters. His answers were published in The Bombay Chronicle and Morning Post, Observer of London.
He boarded the ship when he went to London from the same port and came back to  his own land after one year 4 months. After a few days he wrote to Edward Thomson, describing ;
" When i reached Bombay, I saw a lot of people with garlands . I thought they were waiting to garland some official. My heart sank when I found that they were waiting to make a public show of me there." Not only the visitors but also the reporters from Associated Press asked questions. In reply to that he said;
" I met most delightful literary people who were all very kind and most appreciative. As soon as embarked on our return voyage we were at once made to feel that our fellow-passengers were quite different from the class we were associated with in England."
On that very day Rabindranath started for Calcutta and reached on 29th Sept, on the day of Mahalaya,  where he was welcomed by many people in Howrah Station. 

Saturday, November 12, 2011

Appeal for Nobel Prize done by Sturge Moore

The friends of Rabindranath in England did not like the intimacy of Sturge Moore with him in different aspects.But Sturge Moore was moving in his own way. Rabindranath's creativity deeply attracted him which was evident from the letters he had written to Rabindranath. He wanted to do all he could and he wrote a letter to Rabindranath requesting him to allow that he might  do ;
"It would be well to let Fox Srangeways who has quite precise ideas on all such matters or else misunderstandings & disappointments are bound to arise."
In another letter he expressed about Strangways; "he seems not to be in a very happy frame of mind." On 22 Aug he wrote;
"You will I hope trust me after you are gone as before to help in any way I can, either in preparing Ms or correcting proofs etc etc."
The respect he had for Rabindranath was expressed in the letter of 19th Sept.;
" you have come to us from so far that it is almost as though you had risen from the dead, and we felt for you the awe proper for a messenger from another world as different as it was clearly free from so much that hampers and engrosses ours." 
His state of mind was expressed when he related Rabindranath with Jesus Christ.
This respect he offered with extreme secrecy and in his own way.
 Nobel Prize for literature began to be  awarded since 1901. The system for the award was that the organisations from different countries may recommend names of prospective candidate to the Nobel Committee or an ex-winner of Nobel prize may recommend such names. The members of the the Royal Society of Literature of the United Kingdom had recommended the name of Rudyard Kipling (1865-19360) in 2007, who won the Nobel prize in literature in 2007.This year they had decided to recommend the name of the famous poet and dramatist Thomas Hardy (  1840-1928).But being a member of the society Sturge Moore in his own capacity recommended the name of Rabindranath Tagore.
The young Swidish friend Hans Hadders was requested to send a copy of the original letter of recommendation. But the director of the Svenska Akademiens Nobelbibliotek of Stckhome , Carol Hermelin send a copy of the recommendation of Rabindranath as in the margin.
This was the document on the basis of which Nobel prize for literature was awarded to Rabindranath Tagore in1913.
This correspondence was found out by Krishna Kripalini which was circulated widely in 1955 and he printed it in his book Rabindranath Tagore : A biography (1962).

Friday, November 11, 2011

Rabindranath operated his piles

It was Surendranath (standing) who did a big job. Rabindranath had come to England for two reasons. Firstly, to take some rest from his normal busy hours, and secondly, for treatment of his piles. But he could not get rest in England and his treatment did not improve. The bleeding due to piles had increased and there was no way other than to get it operated. In America he wanted to try for homeopathy but that too was of no progress. At last Surendranath made  him convince for undergoing operation and he examined it by the Royal Madical man Sir Thomas Barlow .    
Sir Thomas Barlow, 1st Baronet KCVO FRS FRCP (4 November 1845 – 15 January 1945) was a British royal physician, known for his research on infantile scurvy.
Plaque to Thomas Barlow at his birthplace, Brandwood Fold, Edgworth.Barlow was the son of a Lancashire cotton manufacturer and Mayor of Bolton, James Barlow (1819–1887). The family were well known as philanthropists in their home village of Edgworth where they funded charities connected with the Methodist church including the Children's Home.
He studied as an undergraduate at Manchester and London. University College London (UCL) Bachelor of Medicine (BM) in 1873 and Doctor of Medicine (MD) 1874. He became a registrar at Great Ormond Street Hospital, and later a physician and in 1899 a consultant. He was professor at the UCL from 1895 to 1907, initially of paediatrics and later of clinical medicine. Barlow's disease — infantile scurvy — is named after him
Rabindranath was operated in a Nursing Home named Duchess Nursing Home  on 30th June, 1913, by Dr. Pollard.
It took about  about a month for his recovery.
In the evening of 10th July the Abbey Theatre Company staged a drama Post Office (dakghar) of Tagore in the Court Theatre situated in Sloane- Square and a drama written by J.M Singhe titled "The well of the saints".  On 12th July, May Sinclair and Evelyn Underhill in two separate letters praised high of the drama of Tagore.

Thursday, November 10, 2011

Rabindranath in England again

Rabindranath came to England at the beginning of Baishakh when he had no friends there and he became anxious but at the end of Baishakh he got more than sufficient number of friends with which he became tired.
On 11th May, Rabindranath went to the house of Mrs. Boole accompanying Miss. J. Macleod, disciple of Swami Vivekananda. He wrote to Jagadananda;
"Yesterday, we went to the house of a famous Mathematician  named Mrs. Boole, aged 82. But she possessed sharp mental strength. She is an widow, her husband was Mr. George Boole, 1815-64, a famous Mathematician. He can create a sense of Geometry to the minds of small children very easily and directly. We shall bring from his teaching method in this respect to Santinketan.
The Indian Majlis of Cambridge invited Rabindranath and Bernard Shaw in one of their get together on 16th May. It was decided that Rabindranath would deliver a lecture there on Indian Religion. Shaw was expected to accompany Tagore . But this was not known to Tagore because he did not hear any thing from Mrs. Shaw when she invited him in a lunch with them on 17th May.
The Cambridge Magazine  wrote on 24th May,1913, on his lecture titled " Mr. Tagore on Indian religion";
" On Sunday evening last, Mr. Rabindranath Tagore -- whose book Giatanjali is reviewed on another page  -- read a most valuable paper to the Majlis Society on "The ancient Religious Ideals of India." The review expressed in the Magazine reveals that Rabindranath read the "The relation of the individual to the Universe" in a short form.
He met J.D. Anderson (  is the Curator of Aerodynamics at the National Air and Space Museum at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC and Professor Emeritus in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Maryland, College Park.) in his house on 22nd May who wrote;
"Just a brief line to tell you that I shall always remember with interest and gratitude that  St. Mary's Lane. I have since thought of dozens of things I might might have asked, you, but what remain in my mind will be the memory of your voice as you recited your poetry... to hear you speak your own verses was a lesson which I shall never forget."
Rabindranath came back to London on 19th May and he delivered a lecture  on this day at Caxton Hall. Tickets had been issued for audience as follows;              
Sturge Moore congratulated Rabindranath for sending him an invitation card of Caxton Hall. (Thomas Sturge Moore (March 4, 1870– July 18, 1944) was an English poet, author and artist. He was born on 4 March 1870 and was educated at Dulwich College, the Croydon Art School and Lambeth Art School. He was a long-term friend and correspondent of W. B. Yeats. He was also a playwright, writing a Medea influenced by Yeats' drama and the Japanese Noah style.)

Wednesday, November 9, 2011

Rathindranath Tagore ( Part I -- 1888-1912)

Rabindranath with Bela (rt) and Rathi (left)

Rabindranath was married in 1883, at the age of 22 when his wife Bhabatarini (renamed Mrinalini ) was 11. Their first child a daughter, Madhurilata (Bela) was born in 1886 and the second child , Rathi on 27th Nov 1888 at Jorasanko.
Madhurilata (Bela) and Rathindranath had their early education at Jorasanko from Abinash Basu, a Kindergarten trained teacher, and his wife.
Rabindranath was at Selaidah keeping Mrinalini with her five children, Madhurilata (11)-born 1886, Rathi (9)-born -1888, Renuka (7)-1891, Mira (4)-1894 and Shamindra (1)- 1896.
Formal Education :
Now Rabindranath decided to bring them to Selaidah for schooling because he had no faith in Indian Schools. He brought all of them to lead a family life in a lonely village, Selaidah, from the luxurious building at Jorasanko and started a residential school at Kuthibadi, Selaidah for his children in 1898 while a school building was being constructed in Santiniketan, a centre for culture of Brahma Vidyalaya (the first name of the present Viswa Bharati University). He appointed three teachers there;
1. For English ; Allen Lorence,
2. For Mathematics; Jagadananda Roy,
3. For Sanskrit; Sibdhan Vidyarnab.
He himself devoted much time for bringing up his own children.
After three yrs. Rabindranath established a school, Brahmacharyashram, at Santiniketan at his father’s ashram on 22nd Dec,1901 with five students and five teachers, one of them being his son, Rathindranath, The five students were renamed as ;
Satyabrata, Abhoybrata, Punyabrata, Mangalbrata, and Brahmabrata. They had to pray at least once in a day and recite Gayatri Mantra.
The teachers are;
1.Brahmabandhab, 2. Reba Chand, 3, Sibdhan Vidyarnab, 4. Jagadananda Roy, and 5. Allen Lorence.
Brahmabandhab didn't take classes regularly. He frequently went to Calcutta and while he stayed at Shantiniketan he simply advised Rabindranath on how to enforce discipline in the School. Within 4/5 months, Brahmabandhab resigned and a graduate teacher, Monaranjan Bhattacharya, joined as Headmaster. Rabindranath wrote to Pravat Kumar Mukhopadhyay that within few days the number of students rose to 12 and for this increase of students extra teachers and increased accommodation became necessary. A boarding house was constructed for the accommodation of students.
At first the school was free but the fees for foo ding and lodging were charged from July 1902, after about six months.
Rathindranath being a founder student of Santiniketan, we get important information from him. He mentioned that Jagadananda Roy could explain difficult science topics in a very simple manner, though his mind was very soft and could not bear simple punishment given to a student. Rebachand taught English well but was very strict. He was a good cricket player and wanted to implement discipline of a cricket game which Rabindranath did not like. The building planned by Balendranath and constructed later was a single storied building with one hall room which was partitioned into three. At one end there was teachers accommodation and at the other end it was students hostel. The middle portion was meant for class room.
He described the daily routine of the students.
Usually the students got up from bed at half past five and went for their morning duties. As there was no sanitary latrine they had to go to Bhubandanga Dam where they finished their Mathkara (popularly known term, even at present) and came to their hostel after bathing in the dam..
They had to put on aprons of different colours based on their castes. but after a few days distinction of castes were removed and all of them put on orange (garua) apron as their school dress. Rathindranath said that it helped them to hide their dirty and torn clothes. They had their usual breakfast as Halua made up of suji.
Rathindranath and Santosh Kumar Majumdar were the students of the school at Shantiniketan reading in Class X (Entrance Exainaion). But the school was not affiliated to the Calcutta University upto the standard of Entrance Examination. For that they had to sit for the examination as a private student. Their test examination for sitting in the entrance exam. would be held separately in District level to be organised by the authorities. As because Jagadananda Roy was having his residential place in Krishnanagar, Rabindranath wanted that they should sit for the test exam. in Krishnanagar. Rabindranath wrote to Manoranjan Bandopadhyay at the end of the month "Kartick' that the arrangement for them for sitting in the exam. might be done aat Krishnanagar.
Accordingly Manoranjan, Jagadananda, Rathindranath and Santosh Chandra, all of student class X, along with an attendant came to Calcutta on 9th January, 1903 and went to Krishnanagar to sit for test exam.
At this Rabindranath wrote to Manoranjan that he was satisfied to learn that they had a good healthy accommodation there in Krishnanagar and Jagadananda Roy might be able to arrange for their food.
Rathindranath deposited his fees of Rs. 10/- as his fee for Entrance exam. on 19 January which Rabindranath intimated to Manoranjan Bandopadhyay
Manoranjan Bandyopadhyay came to Santiniketan, Brahmmacharyashram as a teacher to help Rathindranath in his preparation for Matriculation Examination. But he resigned from his duty as a teacher and left the school before the examination of Rathindranath started. Rabindranath wrote him on 25 Feb, 2003,
"You have joined the Brahmavidyalaya as a Head Teacher since the opening of the school. You have resigned on the ground of your health and I could not stand in your way. I have no other way to express my gratitude to you for the trouble you have taken with your efficient teaching capacity to make ready for final examination of the two students of the school to sit for the Matriculation examination."
It was not expected that Rathindra and Santosh could appear in the examination this year and it was you who made Rathindra ready for examination within a year and made Santosh ready for examination in less than a year time. I had gathered faith in you for your sincerity and efficiency as a teacher for the quality you possess. If opportunity comes again I would ask you to join.
The entrance examination of Rathindranath started from 2 March and for that he came to Calcutta on 25th ,February,1903. Informing this Rabindranath wrote to Priya Nath Sen that Rathi had come to Calcutta
Rathindranath wrote,
"Because the growth of this school was the growth of my life and that of a mere carrying out of my doctrines, its ideal changed with its maturity like a ripening fruit that not only grows in its bulk and deepens in its colour, but undergoes change in the very quality of its inner pulp."
After passing the Entrance Examination in first division in 1903 , Rathindranath was preparing for higher studies independently with the help of some teachers of Santiniketan.This way he undertook lessons from Satish Chandra Roy. He also took lessons in English literature from Mohit Chandra Sen who got a role in the theatre for the 3rd time.
Rathindranath gave a funny story about his acting.
Satish Babu read the drama, 'A midsummer's night dream' written by Shakespeare and thought to stage it. With tremendous excitement we jumped onto it. It was decided that none should be left out.The role of ' Mr.Wall' was given to our Mathematics teacher Jagadananda Roy because there was very little dialogue in this role.
"In this same interlude thus befall that I ..." uttering this Jagadananda Babu looked vacantly to the other actors present on the stage, hoping that if anyone gives him the proxy After lapse of some more time he could remember the portion of the dialogue --. he began to say,
" And thus have I, Wall, my/ part discharged so...", completing his dialogue he quickly got his exit and the audience and spectators burst into laughter.
Though Jagadananda Roy failed performing his first acting but subsequently he showed his talent in drama.
After going to Puri, Mazaffarpur and Himalaya he came back to Santiniketan and fell ill. Rabindranath took him to Calcutta on 11 July..
Rabindranath wrote in his book "My School",
"Fortunately for me I had a place ready to my hand where I could begine my work. My father, in one of its numerous travels, had selected this lonely spot as the one suitable for his life of communion with God. This place, with a permanent endowment, he dedicated to the use of those who seek penance and seclusion for their meditation and prayer. I had about ten boys with me when I came here and started my new life with no previous experience whatsoever." ( Rabindranath Tagore, 'My School' reprint, London, Macmillan.)
Literary work of Rabindranath was as usual, not only in writing poetry, he wrote one novel 'Noukadubi'. In fact, in his early youth he had been to Gazipur and his happy remembrance had been described here nicely.
He also mentioned his concern in the letters written to Kunjalal and Satish Chandra Roy. The letter written dated 5.4.1903 by Satischadra was important as it contained the methods of teaching of the ideals of Brahmacharyashram and how he was applying them in Santiniketan. He wrote,
" the students were, now, absorbed in literature. According to their choice Hembabu's poems were better than that of Michael Babu's.I read before them the similar poetry when I used to teach them a poetry........I didn't prescribed anything about philology."
Ranbindranth's method of teaching was also like that of Satish Chandra. He liked Satish Chandra for that reason.
Santiniketan was declared closed due to excessive heat of the Summer. Keeping Rathindra and some other students of the school after the vacation under the charge of Satish Chandra Rabindranath decided to go to Almorah with Renuka who was suffering from Tuberculosis. He wrote to Srish Chandra that after passing the Entrance examination Rathi would be sent to Japan for training in Mining or would be sent to some other places for training in the subject with practical classes.My intention was to make him trained in some technical subject which he would teach the students of Santiniketan. Santosh also coul;d be sent for similar purpose. Expenses for this training was not much, only rs. 60/- per month. There was facilities for being trained in any subject. He again wrote that he was thinking about the accomodation Rathi should be provided to make him sit for F.A, examination.He was asking Subodh to bring the information about the feasibility of sitting for the examination, privately, from Bolpur.But he could not get information till now. If it was possible to sit for the examination from Bolpur, then it would be better. Moreover, Santosh and Rathi would read together. After three years both of them were sent to America for being trained in Agriculture. Before that they were trained in Santiniketan with special attention.
Rabindranath informed Manoranjan Bandyopadhyay his latest decision. He was happy to see that arrangements could have been done For Raathi to study from Santiniketan. He gave up the temptation of getting Rathi graduate because he had other plan for Rathi
Even after he had gone to Almorah with his ailing daughter Renuka,, Rabindranath could not get himself free from thinking about the school and Rathindranth. He wrote to Manoranjan Bandyopadhyaya,
"I've not yet settled about Rathi. But if I have to send him to Europe or America, it is useless for him to waste time by sitting for F.A examination. If he starts just now then during these two years he may proceed to some steps in his studies.Though he has no examination just now, his studies should not be neglected. So far as I know he is going on with his studies attentively."
He wrote to Satish Chandra, " I'm sure that the studies Rathi undergoing under your guidance are going on smoothly.Rathi's lesson in literature might be taken care by you and not by any other person. Not only in literature you can also teach him about humanity."
On the same day, Rabindranath wrote a long letter to Rathi also, " I hope that you are going on well with your studies and you are doing this with great care and discipline. ......."
Rathindranath and Santosh Chandra remained in Santiniketan during Summer vacation. This time they became very close to Satish Chandra. By this time Rathindranath acquired some brilliancy in Bengali, English and Sanskrit
Rathindranath and Samindranath came to Calcutta to see their ailing sister Renuka for the last time. After 9 days (14th Sept.) Renuka expired. The news was circulated to Bolpur and Phooltala, mother-in-laws house through telegraph. Rathindranath and Samindranath went to Bolpur well in ahead.
During winter vacation of the school at Santiniketan Rabindranath took Mira, Sami, Rathi, Santosh Chandra, and the teacher of the school Subodh Chandra Majumdar to Selaidah
Rathindranath, Santosh Chandra, and Dinendranath remained in the hostel under the guardianship of Satish Chandra. The scientist and poet Surendranath Moitra came to Santiniketan during this time. Rathindranath had drawn a beautiful painting as a memento to his father.
Rabindranath reached Calcutta on 5 Jan.
On 7th Jan he went to Selaidah with Mira, Sami, Rathindranath, Santosh Chandra and a school teacher Subodh Chandra Majumdar.
In the mean time the school teacher Manoranjan Bandyopadhyay who sat for BL exam. and had gone through the examination. The news of his success came to Selaidah via Santiniketan. At this Rabindranath said,
Two of your student Rathi and Santosh and Prof. Subodh were swimming in the river when I informed them the news . On hearing the news they were so delighted that they made the water of the river blown in twice the speed they were doing earlier.
Bhupendranath Sanyal joined the school as a teacher after the Puja vacation. Satyaranjan Basu wrote ,
' Narendranath Bhattacharya and Nagendranath Aich joined as professors in Selaidah (the school was temporarily shifted there). Naren Babu was a poet and an artist. He was a teacher of Bengali. Nagen Babu was teacher of drawing.'
Narendranath was an old teacher. This was his second time of joining here. But could not continue for long time.
Nagendranath Aich (1878- 1956) was a man of Khulna District, recently traind in Vernacular. He worked in a school for a long time.
Bhupendranath was a religious man. He was a real teacher in Brahmacharyasram and to implement the ideals of Rabindranath. His sacrifice was well known. He looked after the children as his son which was narrated by his beloved student in their autobiography. Rabindranath tried a new experiment with his help.When Rabindranath established the school , he preached them the spiritualism. Now he wanted to preach them the ancient ideals of India. They choose three of them , 1. Santosh Chandra, 2. Rathindranath,3. Sarojchandra (Bhola). Rabindranath, Mohit Chandra and Bhupendranath initiated them.
Bhupendranath wrote that they paid special attention to the three boys about their work and advised them about Brahmacharya. It was decided that these boys would lead an ideal life and will be in charge of the other boys to see that all would obey the same principle of Brahmacharya of thee ancient India
In another letter written to Sushila Devi, wife of Mohit Chandra, Rabindranath expressed his anxiety for his friend Mohit Chandra.He informed that the students were engaged for his nursing. If he was not cured then he would be brought in Jorasanko for his treatment.
In the opinion of Rabindranath 'journey to different places is a part of education.' He was remembering the journey to the Himalayas and the journey the ganges and Padma with his father.He also took Rathi to different places.Now Rathi had been given the facilities going round the world. Rathindranath and Dinendranath went to Calcutta from Selaidah and then they went to Puri. After their return Rabindranath sent him to Badrikasram under the guidance of Swami Sadananda of Ramkrishna Mission.
When he was at Calcutta, he went to the house of Jagadish Chandra where he met Nivedita who arranged him to meet Swami Sadananda who was going to Badrikasram with a few student. Rabindranath sent Rathindranath and Dinendranath with them.
Last year , on 2nd March 1905, A Japani's interpreter named Kusumato San joined his work,

this year Je Sano or Sano San, another Japani Carate teacher joined the school. Rathindranath and Santosh began to take lesson from him about Carate.      
Rabindranath decided to send Rathindranath to America for getting him trained in Agricultural Science. He surely had started communication earlier with Urbano Agricultural College. The expenses for purchasing some emergency materials for going to America was found in the official cash book dated 25 Feb 1906. The farewell of Rathindranath and Santosh Chandra was arranged on 12 March at Santiniketan. They had some acquittance with Anushilan Samity after joining in the Movement for withdrawal of the order of "Division of Bengal". Jibantara Halder wrote ;
"After few days RathinThakur, Nagen Ganguli and Santosh Majumdar started for America for getting themselves trained for "Introduction of National Education" in our country." A meeting was arranged at the central office (49 Corrnwallis Street) for bidding the farewell. Rabindranath was present on the occasion, delivered his welcoming address and took dinner with the members of the Samity."The autobiographer of Rabndranth wrote that Rathindranath and Santosh Chandra started for America via Japan in a steamer on 3rd April 1906

An article, titled "Student life in America", was published in "The Bengalee" on 2 Jan 1907 by a writer from Ilionois, may be, it was Rathindranath.
Rabindranath had to face a new problem when he was busy with his ailing daughter Renuka. He came to Calcutta keeping his daughter Renuka, on 12 Bhadra (29th Aug,1903) Almorah. He got a letter from Mohit Chandra complaining about his initiative of getting his son, Rathindranath, married in the month of Phalgun. The basis of this information was hear say. In reply to this letter, Rabindranath said,
Don't get tensed. Coming 3/4 Phalgun, there is no chance of Rathi's marriage. Perhaps, I told some body, during discussion, that I want take leave by handing over my duties after getting Rathi married. This might have reached the parents of would-be bride and they are always showing their eagerness but I answered all of them in the negative. Even they asked Rathi about his opinion in this matter. By this way it floated in the air.
Mohit Babu was satisfied with this answer.
Rathi was married with Pratima Devi (1893-1969), the elder sister of Gaganendranath and widow daughter of Shesendrabhushan Chattopadhyay, on 14 Magh 1316 (27 Jan 1910). It is said that Mrinalini Devi expressed her willingness to get her as her daughter-in -law after the birth of Pratima. It was revealed from a letter of Rabindranath that he also approved it. But knowing that they are not eager to get him married just now, the parents of the bride had to give up the idea.
Purnima Chattopadhyay, the daughter of Gaganendranath wrote;
At the time of marriage Pratma was only 11 years old. They got the invitation of her 'bed of flowers' at the middle of 1310, Bangabda. But within two months of her marriage her 1st husband, Nilanath Chattopadhyay, died after being drowned in the Ganges.
Santiniketan was having shortage of teachers at that time. Rabindranath suggested that if suitable teacher was not available, Rathi and Santosh might be utilised in teaching students of lower classes.
Having learnt that Ranidi had come to Calcutta, Mira Devi came to Jorasanko to see her and wrote;
" I can't forget how lean and thin she has become, which is evident from his pale smile.She called me and handed over all her toys to me. On their way to Calcutta her father bought for her." I had gone to Mejoma after meeting her. I do not know hen she was relieved of all her pain and agony. I heard that just before her death she asked her father, to recite ' Ong, Pita nohasi Balo.' When they were in Hazaribagh her father recited sloka from Upanishad every day.
Rathindranath and Shamindranath came on 19 Bhadra (5 Sep) to bid her last visit. after 9 days from this date , 28 Bhadra (14 Sep) Renuka Died.
Prasanta Mahalanabish wrote, "after the death of his 2nd daughter, Rabindranath told him.It was Swadeshi movement then."
Rasbindranth's youngest daughter, Mira, was to be married to Nagendranath Gangopadhyay on 23 Jaishthya. After their marriage Nagendranath would be sent to America for training in Agricultural Science. Rathi and Nagendranath would be absorbed simultaneously.
During the movement against "Division of Bengal' the name of Rabindranath was black-listed by the police. The police was curious about his poem "Namaskar" and also they were watchful about Brahmacharyasram. Rajlakshmi Devi wrote Rathindranath on 4th Sept 2007,
"Perhaps you know that your father does not possess good name in the police document. The Government has prosecuted Arabindo Ghosh, the editor of "Bandemataram" .Perhaps you know this. Your father has written a poem wishing him which has been circulated throughout Calcutta and was published in Bhadra issue of Bangadarshan. In that poem he did not show faithfulness to the government. For all these reasons they were displeased with him. Yesterday we got a sign of that. On all a sudden a man came to our place, apparent intention of him was to inspect the school. Your father felt some doubt about the man. He, at first, introduced him with the teachers and left the place in a hurry. But the man did not relieve him so easily.He began to search this and that and asked the students whether they undergo training of bamboo-sticks or sword or gun etc. We had a Volunteer Band amongst the students now a days.12/14 students are practicing, every day, different difficult training. They are instructed by blowing bugle. On hearing the sound of the bugle, the doubt of the man became sound. At last he went to inspect nook and corner, from Laboratory to kitchen searching everything. After the lunch he interrogated your father for long time on different issues. He pretended to show that he is eager to establish a school of this type and asked to be frank to inform him in details about the school. Ultimately your father told him that you may please see all the rooms but you will not be able to find anything which you want to see. We do not prepare bombs like things. Then he went away and did not stay in Santiniketan even on repeated requests.
Another person came , and halted for 2/3 days."
Rabindranath wrote Rathindra to make Nagendranath convince to take up agricultural Science instead of Ceramic. "Try your best so that Nagendra become stout and bold like a man. I find him shading tears while he writes letter to his brother. That was typical of the members of Brhmo Samaj. They think that this is the way how one can show his tenderness. But they do not know that this is the sign of disgrace to a maleperson."
Rathindranath got B.S. (B.Sc.) degree in agriculture and on this year (1909) he started for Europe. Rabindranath wrote Manoranjan Bandyopadhyay, on 26April (13 Baishakh);
"Yesterday, I sent him money for going to Europe. I want that he would go to France and then Germany and complete his study before coming to Calcutta."
Staying for some days in London (a letter written from London are kepr at Rabindrabhaban)Rathindranath went to Germany and studied in the Goettingen University there. On 9th Aug Rabindranath wrote Manoranjan;
"Today, I received a letter from Rathi. Now he is at Germany. he wanted money for coming back to his country and and that has been sent."
He, again, wrote him on 20 Aug ;
"Bela is writing a letter to Rathi at Bombay address and I asked her to intimate you too."
From the official record it was found that Rathi had come to Howrah station on 5th Sept. On the same day, Rabindranath went to Ballygunge accompanying Rathi and wrote to Nagendranath, his second son-in-law, "Rathi has come....He would be busy for some time to meet his relatives door to door. I have to think for his place of work. I am, at present, busy with some domestic problems. After solving these problems I have to settle a suitable job for Rathi and Sarat and then I may get some relief. I was waiting so long
Rabindranath was at Calcutta for some days. Rathi (Rathi returned back from America after successfully completing his study on Sept, 1909), too was staying in Caclcutta. Rabindranath was busy to give charges of the main estate on 13th Nov., 1909 and to make his own future plan and programme.On that day, he went to Patisar via Selaidah early in the morning with Rathi. He travelled with Rathi a long distance through boat to make Rathi , the new Zamindar, known with the tenant because they have some holdings in the district of Rajsahi. He had come to this place with Rathi earlier.
On the next day, Rathindranath wrote Nagendranath Gangopadhyay form the boat on the Padma;
"we again returned back from Kaligram by boat . My father was dropped at Goalanda . He went to Calcutta from that place on the day after tomorrow. He had to deliver a lecture at YMCA.
In the month of Paush from 17th, Rabindranath was at Calcutta for arranging negotiation for marriage of Rathindranath. This was known from a letter written by Jyotirindranath dated 4th Jan (20 Paush).
"Got a letter from Rabi - he requested me to remain present at the marriage ceremony of Rathi."
The marriage was settled with the widow daughter, Pratima Devi (5.11.1893-9.1.1969) of Binayini Devi and Seshendra Bhusan Chattopadhyay. Binayini Devi was the sister of Gaganendranath. After her birth Mrinalini Devi wanted her to be married with her son, Rathi.But as the Guardians were not willing to delay more, the negotiation did not proceed.She was married with the son, Nilnath, of Nirode Nath Mukhopadhyay, a classmate of Rabindranath, on Phalgun, 1310.But after two months, on Baisakh, 1311 Nilnath died suddenly by drowning in the Ganges.
In the context of marriage of Rathindranath, Pratima came, at first, in the mind of Rabindranath.Purnima Chattopadhyay, the daughter of Gaganandranath wrote,
"Rathikaka having come back from foreign, Rabidada said to my father, you ought to think of Pratima to get her married again. Ask Binayini not to disagree because Pratima has to pass so many days before her and it is very difficult ,at this age, to neglect all the temptations. Moreover, her parents are alive now, but after their death to live in the family of her brothers will be a difficult task.It is not at all desirable. Think, hat iit is better to get her married again.
My elder aunt said, 'I shall be boycotted in the society then. I possess more children and has to get them married.'
My father said, 'don't be afraid, I'm always with you. If you are boycotted by society, I too shall boycot the society. But in this way, we cannot allow to go away with the life of our child Moreover, the groom is not an unknown person, He is our Rathi. Rabikaka likes to get him married with Pratima. Our child will remain in our house. Donot disagree. We have to take Pratima's opinion. She has to realise '
At the outset, she does not agree. My father made her agreeable after many trials.My father said, you think that it was a dream. Now you have to start a fresh. Ignoring the then society My father get her married in his own house with his constant guard. There were many obstructions, but my father ignored all of them."
Jyotirindranar wrote in his diary, "I had talks with Samar and Gagan. It was encouraging. "
Rabindranath wrote to Nagendra residing in America, "Hope you know it ws a widow marriage. At first there were some problems, but ignoring them all were solved
Rathindranath entering into practical field;
Rabindranth wrote another big letter to Satyaprasad (standing right) on 16 Kartick (2nd Nov 1909). the glorious persons those who rtayed in Maharshi Bhavan, Jorasanko, had gradually started to settledown in separate residence. Satyendranath, Gnanadanandini, and Jyotirindra lad left Jorasnko for long ago, Dwijendranath was staying, at present, in Santiniketan and for the last two decades Rabindranath living in Jorasanko off and on. The childrens of Dwijendranath and Hemendranath were staying there, buty they did not take the responsibility of the maitenance of the building at jorasanko. Satyprasad, as a estate manager, lived there with his mother, and his children and took the full responsibility. When he ,himself,wanted to go to Kashi-Allahabad, the area of his daughter's father-in-law, Rabindranath wrote him with broken heart;

"Let me open the true picture before you. I am not at all satisfied with your decision of leaving Jorasanko cutting off all the relations. For, number one, the relation with you is a life long bondage, which had been mingled with the bricks, walls etc , secondly, the relation that had been developed with you was depedable. In a word, Jorasanko is now almost empty. if you stay here, at least, it seems to be domestic building-my childrens too consider you as near and dear ones, they donot get any other person as you . If you leave , the house will appear as a rest house. Moreover Rathi has to live in villge for his work, then it will be difficult to say a dwelling place. For all these reasons, you are asked to stay so long as you can. It may by true that you have a family and that is not only these bricks and walls.If your relatives stay otherwise, then it is painful to keep you here. You will have to be relieved. jorasanko has become meaningless to us and if you will leave then that will be confirmed."
Satyaprasad was granted a pension of Rs.150/- only p.m.and he is getting his pension from the month of Paush.
Rabindranath was at Calcutta for some days. Rathi (Rathi returned back from America after successfully comleting his study on Sept, 1909), too was staying in Caclcutta. Rabindranath was busy to give charges of the main estate on 13th nov., 1909 and to make his own future plan and programme.On that day, he went to Patisar via Selaidah early in the morning with Rathi. He travelled with Rathi a long distance through boat to make Rathi , the new Zamindar, known with the tenant because they have some holdings in the district of Rajsahi. He had come to this place with Rathi earlier.
On the next day, Rathindranath wrote Nagendranath Gangopadhyay form the boat on the Padma;
"we again returned back from Kaligram by boat . My father was dropped at Goalanda . He went to Calcutta from that place on the day after tomorrow. He had to deliver a lecture at YMCA.
In the month of Paush from 17th, Rabindranath was at Calcutta for arranging negotiation for marriage of Rathindranath. This was known from a letter written by Jyotirindranath dated 4th Jan (20 Paush).
"Got a letter from Rabi - he requested me to remain present at the marriage ceremony of Rathi."
The marriage was settled with the widow daughter, Pratima Devi (5.11.1893-9.1.1969) of Binayini Devi and Seshendra Bhusan Chattopadhyay. Binayini Devi was the sister of Gaganendranath. After her birth Mrinalini Devi wanted her to be married with her son, Rathi.But as the Guardians were not willing to delay more, the negotiation did not proceed.She was married with the son, Nilnath, of Nirode Nath Mukhopadhyay, a classmate of Rabindranath, on Phalgun, 1310.But after two months, on Baisakh, 1311 Nilnath died suddenly by drowning in the Ganges.
In the context of marriage of Rathindranath, Pratima came, at first, in the mind of Rabindranath.Purnima Chattopadhyay, the daughter of Gaganandranath wrote,
"Rathikaka having come back from foreign, Rabidada said to my father, you ought to think of Pratima to get her married again. Ask Binayini not to disagree because Pratima has to pass so many days before her and it is very difficult ,at this age, to neglect all the temptations. Moreover, her parents are alive now, but after their death to live in the family of her brothers will be a difficult task.It is not at all desirable. Think, hat iit is better to get her married again.
My elder aunt said, 'I shallbe boycotted in the society then. I possess more children and has to get them married.'
My father said, 'don't be afraid, I'm always with you. If you are boycotted by society, I too shall boycot the society. But in this way, we cannot allow to go away with the life of our child Moreover, the groom is not an unknown person, He is our Rathi. Rabikaka likes to get him married with Pratima. Our child will remain in our house. Donot disagree. We have to take Pratima's opinion. She has to realise '
At the outset, she does not agree. My father made her agreeable after many trials.My father said, you think that it was a dream. Now you have to start a fresh.
Ignoring the then society My father get her married in his own house with his constant guard. There were many obstructions, but my father ignored all of them."
Jyotirindranar wrote in his diary, "I had talks with Samar and Gagan. It was encouraging. "
Rabindranath wrote to Nagendra residing in America, "Hope you know it ws a widow marriage. At first there were some problems, but ignoring them all were solved.

Rabindranath was busy in getting married his son Rathindranath, just after the end of Maghotsab, was accelerated after the festival. He wrote Dinesh Chandra Sen,
Yesterday I wanted to go to your place for handing over your invitation card of the marriage of Rathindranath. But I beecame tired after going to different places. My health too is not keeping well. Moreover,I could not get time before 11 Magh (24 Jan , he delivered a lecture at Maghotsab, Calcutta, on Biswabodh). Now it is very difficult to meet all the works about the marriage.Please don't take otherwise, if I am not able to invite you by presenting myself. I think, you also may not be able to attend the ceremony physically for your pre-occupation. But Arun should come. The marriage will be held on 14th Mag (27, Jan. 1910, at 9 pm. and the first eating rice of the new bride will occur on 17th Magh, at midday.)

On 14 Magh (27 Jan), at 9 pm Rathindranath (21years) was married with Pratima (16 years). Jyotirindranath wrote in his diary,
"This is the end of the marriage of Rathi...Pratima (bride) looks very beautiful -- her age is 16 only. This is the first incidence of a widow marriage in our family.The marriage took place at the house of Gagans."
To make the occasion remarkable Rabindranath dedicated his book, Gora, to Rathindranth mentioning the date on the book. On the same date Jagadish Chadra presented a copy of his book "Plant response as a means of Physiological Investigation" to Rathindranath.
On 17th Magh (30th Jan), Jyotirindranath wrote in his diary, " This is the day of first taking rice of the bride of Rathi. Lahorini and Nagendrabala of Harhkata Lane also came." Lahorini" Saratkumari Choudhurani presented a valuable gift to Rathindranath. Due to his economic stringency Rabindranath disposed off 'all his belongings for the development of Brahmacharyasrama, even the books of his own library', to different persons But he did not sell the golden pocket watch received by Rathindranath as a gift in his marriage ceremony. It was so nice that on putting on a switch, two doors became automatically open and within the cover the letters R.T. were inscribed.- This watch was once bought by Saratkumari Choudhurani from Rabindranath.
Rathindranath wrote, " in my marriage ceremony she presented a box to me". On opening the box, I saw with great astonishment that it was the same watch belonged to my father. At once my heart became filled with gratitude. The watch is now preserved in Rabindra Sadan.
Tagore with his family members. (L-R) Daughter Mira Devi, son Rathindranath, Tagore, Daughter-in-law Pratima Devi and daughter Madhuri Lata. )

( Pratima, wife of Rathindranath, 2nd from right)
"Rabindranath's in-experience in domestic affairs caused some mistakes in the management of Rathi's marriage, after its successful completion," was the complain made by Manoranjan Bandyopadhyay. In reply to this Rabindranath wrote on 8 Feb (26 Magh); " I was not to be blamed for the mistakes commtitted in the management of Rathi's marriage ceremony. Because I was completely aware about my in-experience in all such affairs. I kept myself silent during the ceremony and relied on those whom I had given full liberty to perform all about the management. The only exceptions are I paid the money and Rathi is my son. Many blunders have been committed and I'm supposed to be responsible for those but I expect absolute excuse from your end." Rabindranath along with his son and daughter-in-law went to Santiniketan, on the same date (26th magh) and added, " We are going to Bolpore this day." Before doing this he was busy in doing last minutes social responsibilities. Jyotirindraanth, in his diary, wrote on 31 Jan (18th Magh),"...I met Rabi after coming to Jorasanko in the room of Bela" and dded on 24th Magh,"again I met Rabi in the room of Bela after coming to Jorasanko along with Jogesh (Choudhury)" Rabindranath was very much pleased with her (daughter-in-law) behaviour and her handsomeness and wanted to hand over the respnsibilty of his family.

Pratima Debi was Gaganendranath and Abanindranath Tagore’s niece. (Her mother Binayini Debi was their sister). Before her marriage to Rathindranath, Pratima Debi had been married to Nilanath Mukhopadhyay but, was widowed later. Rathindranath and Pratima Debi’s marriage was the first instance of a widow marriage in the Tagore family
First rice taking ceremony of Pratima was held on 30th Jan, 2010 and Rabindranath handed over the charge of his family to her with a sum of Rupees 50/- as family expenses on 2nd Feb, 2010, just after 3 days she came to her father-in-law's house. Rabindranath wrote to his son-in-law, Nagendranath,
" Hope you have got the news of my daughter-in-law. Everybody likes her very much. It is Santi who is charmed and Dhiren (both are brothers of Nagendra) too is so. They are of opinion that this time her beauty surpassed that of Bela even. Not only in outward beauty, her behaviour is also sweet. Her face appears so calm that she looks gracious and erveryone becomes attracted."
In that letter, written to Nagendra, he described the duties alloted to Rathindranath. After the completion of his course Nagendranath might join in the same field of work. Rabindranath described him in details the socio-economic perspective of contemporary India.
" Now,our main duty is to try to develop the economic condition of the downtrodden of our society.If you want to be a co-worker of Rathi then there are ample scope. You can cultivate land in co-operation with the farmers, can open Banks, to build healthy dwelling place for them, to pay up their debt, to arrange for the education of their kids, to provide means of livelihood for their old age, to costruct roads and dams, to remove scarcity of drinking water, to fasten each other with bondage on the basis of co-operation, and so many similar works.If we became successful to form an ideal village of this type, then the whole country will get an example to do likewise. I did not find persons to do this type of basic work. Everyone wants excitement. There are very few persons for real work, for real sacrifice."